July 30, 2004Judge Says San Francisco's Affirmative Action Program Violates Ban, Associated Press. A judge has enjoined the city of San Francisco from enforcing its affirmative action program. He says it violates Proposition 209, a ban approved by voters in 1996. The city's program gives bidding advantages to businesses owned by minorities and women seeking contracts with the city. Superior Court Judge James L. Warren ruled: "The intent of the voters in adopting Proposition 209 was to outlaw race-and sex-based programs irrespective of the good will and moral position behind any particular program," Warren wrote. Cited in Business & Legal Reports, http://hr.blr.com/news.aspx?id=10211.
Sept.-Oct. 1977 - City Affirmative Action, John Tepper Marlin, Public Administration Review 37:5, American Society for Public Administration - http://www.jstor.org/pss/974700. Survey of affirmative action efforts in major U.S. cities conducted in conjunction with the Council on Municipal Performance. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was created in 1964 but did not have any enforcement powers until 1972, the same year that municipalities were brought under its authority. This survey looks at progress after five years.